The United Kingdom and Northern Ireland

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Учитель английского языка О. М. Свенцицкая

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland comprises the whole of British Isles except for the part of Ireland that forms the Republic of Ireland. Included in the UK are the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea and the Channel Islands.


The UK is a constitutional monarchy. Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch - Queen Elizabeth II as head of State. The British constitution unlike those of most other countries is not set out in a single document but made up of a combination of laws.

British parliament has two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the Sovereign, with whose consent he or she appoints the rest of the Cabinet.

The principal parts of the UK are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The capital of UK and England is London, the capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, Cardiff is the capital of Wales and Belfast of Northern Ireland.

The UK is situated on the British Isles, which are separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Strait of Dover and the English Channel.

The Thames is the busiest and the most important river in Great Britain. It flows into the North Sea.

The Highlands of Scotland are among the oldest mountains in the world. The lakes in Scotland are called lochs. The beautiful Loch Lomond with its thirty islands is the largest.

Snowdon is the highest peak in the Cambrian Mountains (in Wales), which rises to 1,085 m.

The climate is mild and damp. The Atlantic Ocean has a dominating effect on the climate.

The national symbol of England is a red rose.

The national symbol of Wales is a leek or a daffodil.

The national symbol of Scotland is a thistle.

The national symbol of Ireland is a shamrock.