Пособие, созданное в помощь учителю, работающему с книгой Луа Лори “Даритель”

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Учитель английского языка О. М. Свенцицкая

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Автор книги - американская писательница, получившая признание у себя на родине и за рубежом благодаря многочисленным произведениям, написанным для подростков. Роман “Даритель”, вышедший в свет в 1993 году, отмечен литературной премией “Медаль Ньюбери” - ежегодной наградой Американской библиотечной ассоциации, присуждаемой писателю, внесшему наиболее существенный вклад в американскую детскую литературу.

Тридцать экземпляров книги, которые используются учащимися, - подарок, сделанный нашей гимназии в 1995 году от Хелен Белл, библиотекаря средней школы в городе Эль Пасо, штат Техас. С 1996 года роман пользуется успехом среди читателей нашей гимназии. Данное пособие - результат многолетних разработок, сделанных в процессе работы.

В данном пособии предлагаются различные типы заданий, вопросов на понимание и для обсуждения, а также несколько лексических и грамматических упражнений.

Акцент сознательно сделан на обсуждении содержания, а не на грамматике или лексике по двум соображениям. Во-первых, цель домашнего чтения с последующим обсуждением в классе и заключается в том, чтобы учить детей понимать язык оригинала и получать удовольствие от чтения даже при сохранении определенного процента незнакомой лексики .Эффект погружения, достигаемый при обильном чтении, позволяет сохранить свежесть восприятия, которое нетрудно потерять при более подробном аналитическом разборе. Во-вторых, при активном и эмоциональном обсуждении прочитанного, особенно проблем, близких подросткам, учащиеся усваивают новую лексику непроизвольно. Как показывает практика, подобное усвоение часто оказывается наиболее прочным.

Чтобы облегчить труд учителя, даются объяснения новой лексики по-английски (Longman. Dictionary of American English. 1997. New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language. College Edition. New Delhi. 1988).

Для расширения словарных понятий приводятся три статьи из разных источников. В них можно найти объяснения политических и философских терминов, необходимость в которых может возникнуть при обсуждении главных вопросов, поднимаемых в романе.

Аннотация

В центре романа - переживания Джонаса, двенадцатилетнего мальчика, назначенного на ответственную должность преемника Дарителя - единственного хранителя памяти в тоталитарном обществе. Это общество так давно живет по законам Однообразия, что никто, кроме Дарителя не помнит, что значит снег, солнечный цвет, животные, цвета, а также настоящая семья и настоящие чувства. Люди избавлены от голода, боли и страданий, но цена благополучия слишком велика. Приобретя память, а вместе с нею и мудрость, Джонас решительным поступком спасает маленького мальчика, которому грозит смерть только за то, что он плохо спит по ночам. На специфическом языке данного общества исключение одного из членов путем умерщвления называется Освобождением.

Роман поднимает серьезные философские проблемы: имеет ли человек право на свободный выбор - профессии, увлечения, супруга или супруги, даже если его выбор может оказаться “неправильным” и привести общество к хаосу.

В параллель к данному роману учащимся следует рекомендовать для чтению другие антиутопии: “Мы” Замятина, “Прекрасный новый мир” Хаксли, “1984” Орвелла.

Данное пособие поможет любому учителю лучше понять роман и сделать его более доступным для учащихся. Предлагаемые задания сэкономят время учителя, необходимое для подготовки, и послужат импульсом к новым творческим трактовкам.

 

THE GIVER

Lois lowry

Standard task:

Read the chapter, entitle it and write a gist (three or five sentences)

Мake questions that the author would like you to raise.

Chapter 1

A title - Apprehension?

I. Apprehension.

Vocabulary:

Apprehensive of the future/ of the disaster/ for her health

apprehensive - worried or anxious, especially about the future

News of the plane increased Tim’s apprehension about flying.

She felt apprehensive at the thought of Mark’s reaction/

distraught - extremely anxious or upset: A policeman was trying to calm the boy’s distraught mother.

The purists are distraught at the intrusion of foreign words.

Distracted - anxious and not able to think clearly: Laura seems distracted - she must be worried about her finals.

to be distracted with pain

hatchery- a place for hatching eggs, esp. Fish or poultry eggs.

The questions that the author wants the readers to ask: Why was he frightened?- not frightened, but apprehensive, like all the Elevens were before the event that would be coming so soon. - What event?

Why was food delivered and not bought?

aircraft = plane

an isolated community

The Pilot will be released. - ?

What does ‘to be released’ mean?

“For a contributing citizen to be released from the community was a final decision, a terrible punishment, an overwhelming statement of failure.”- Negative connotation.

Asher.

Ways of life. School began with a chanting of the morning anthem (patriotic hymn).

‘I apologize for inconveniencing my learning community.’- standard apology phrase.

II. One of the rituals, the evening telling of feelings.

Told their feelings each evening

Jonas’s feelings that evening were too complicated.

Lily, his sister, seven.

The children did not know what the word ‘animals’ meant. - Why?

Lily’s feelings. - angry with a visitor from another community.

“They were learning usages that my group had not learned yet, so we felt stupid.” - ?

Jonas: I feel sorry for anyone who is in a place where he feels strange and stupid.

Lily’s feelings were always straightforward, fairly simple, usually easy to resolve.

Jonas’s father. A Nurturer. “Nurturers were responsible for all the physical and emotional needs of every new child during its earliest life.”

A feeling of worry = a concern about one of the newchildren who wasn’t doing well.

A sweet little male with a lovely disposition. Wasn’t growing as fast as he should, did not sleep soundly. The committee was beginning to talk about releasing him.

Release. - What does this mean?

What we have got to know about release:

1) Release was a punishment.

2) Release of the elderly, which was a time of celebration for a life well and fully lived.

3) Release of a newchild, which always brought a sense of what-could-we-have-done.

The little guy needed something extra.

“The people on the night crew had not even been given spouses because they lacked the essential capacity to connect to others, which was required for the creation of a family unit.” - What could this mean?

The rules - one male, one female - to each family unit. - What rules?

 

III. The Mother held a prominent position at the Department of Justice.

A repeat offender had been brought before her - someone who had broken the rules before. Had been restored to his job, his home, his family unit. Caused her feelings of frustration and anger and even guilt. He has to be released. That meant unspeakable disgrace.

Jonas would have preferred to keep his feelings hidden. It was against the rules.

Jonas was apprehensive about the Ceremony. - What ceremony?

The Ceremony of Twelve lay in the future for every child. -( Lily was awed.)

What have you learned about Jonas and about the ways of the community, their rules and rituals? Which of them do you like?

THE GIVER, chapter 2

More about rules and rituals. A very regulated life. Rules were very hard to change. -p14.

The Elders and the Receiver, the most important Elder.

A long private conversation. Jonas was reassured by the talk with his parents.

A talk about the coming Ceremony.

Some rules could be broken.

The Ceremony of Twelve, the last of the Ceremonies.

Jonas was to get an assignment for his future.

He was apprehensive about it.

The Ceremony for the Ones. Noisy and fun. Each December, all the newchildren born in the previous year turned One. There were always fifty in each year’s group. They were named and given to their established family unit. The family units had made their application and been approved.

Gabriel. Child number Thirty-Six was to be named Gabriel. If he made it to the Naming without being released. The father broke the rule - was concerned about the child - it occurred to him it might enhance his nurturing. Whispered his name to him when he fed him every four hours, and during exercise and playtime.

Lily. Jonas remembered the year they acquired Lily.

The father. Waited impatiently for the Ceremony of Twelve while a child. A shy and quiet boy. Was already fairly certain of what his Assignment was to be. Found himself drawn to the newchildren. Spent almost all of his volunteer hours helping in the Nurturing Center. Felt very fortunate as he had got the Assignment that he wanted most.

Selection. The most important job in the community. A secret selection, made by the leaders of the community, the Committee of Elders, who took the responsibility so seriously that there were never even jokes made about Assignments. Children getting on twelve were constantly observed by the Elders. - in school, at recreation time, and during volunteer hours. They watched the Elevens and took notes. They met for long hours with all of the instructors that the Elevens had had during their years of school. Were very careful in their observations and selections. Nobody had ever been disappointed./ There were very rarely disappointments. There was an appeal process.

After the Ceremony age wasn’t important. No more volunteer hours. No more recreation hours. As soon as the twelves entered their training, they made friends on a new level.

Asher.

Toys - comfort objects. Imaginary creatures. No more toys after the age of eight.

What do you like and what do you dislike about the ways of the community? What assignment would you like to get if you had to?

Chapter 3

Gabriel

1. What was unusual about Gabriel’s eyes?

2. What was Lily’s guess about Gabriel and Jonas’s resemblance?

3. What was Gabriel’s comfort object?

4. Was an assignment to be a Birthmother an honorable one?

5. What seemed good and what was hard in Birthmothers’ life?

6. What unusual thing did Jonas do the day a month before?

7. Why did he take an apple home? What was remarkable about the apple?

8. Did Asher see anything unusual about the apple?

9. Where was he when he heard the announcement?

Chapter 4

Jonas helping at the House of the Old

He wanted to know what happened when they made the actual release.

Did he know much? Why not?

Give an account of a usual ceremony after Larissa’s one.

Chapter 5

Telling dreams. First stirrings.

Dream-telling began with Threes.

Why did they have to tell their dreams? - Dreams revealed their secret thoughts. The community could not afford any secrets. Even the inner life of every citizen was to be under control.

Jonas’s strongest feeling in his dream was the wanting. He could feel the wanting all through him. He found his dream confusing.

Stirrings must be reported in order for treatment to take place.

All people, male and female, had to take special pills to kill stirrings unless they entered the House of the Old.

Stirring meant sexual awakening/ maturity/ getting mature

This means there was no sex in the community, except for reproduction.

Chapter 6

The Ceremony of Naming.

Gabe was granted an additional year of nurturing before his Naming and Placement. Why? What was wrong with him? - Hadn’t gained the weight appropriate to his days and hadn’t begun to sleep soundly enough at night to be placed with his family unit

Gabriel had been labeled Uncertain and given the additional year.

Caleb, a replacement child....The community performed the brief Murmur-of-Replacement Ceremony.

The ceremonies of Two, and Three and Four.

For the Fives, Sixes, Sevens, and finally, last of the first day’s ceremonies, the Eights.

Lily received an identifying jacket with pockets. Received instructions on the responsibilities of Eight and doing volunteer hours for the first time. No bicycle yet.

The Ceremony of Nines. New bicycles.

The Ceremony of Tens. Females lost their braids, males got their hair cut shorter.

The Ceremony of Eleven. New clothing: new undergarments of the females, and longer trousers for the males. Plus a calculator.

Anticipation before getting assignments.

Ideas of joining another community. Jonas could not understand how someone could not fit. The community was meticulously ordered, the choices carefully made.

The Matching of Spouses , the Naming, Placement of newchildren, the Assignments were scrupulously thought through by the Committee of Elders.

Do you find all these regulations sensible? Do you think they might be beneficial for society?

Chapter 7

The Ceremony of Twelve.

Jonas’ s anxiety and triumph

Chapter 7

Shame

Find the sentences with verbs in the Passive Voice.

Why do you think the Passive Voice is used in the book so often?

The Passive Voice

p 50

were arranged

had been given

were used

had been born

p 51

had been advanced

was made

was elected

p 52 These should be formed!

were taught to fit

their behavior was standardized

every impulse was curbed

p 53

was taken

being pampered - Passive Gerund

was given

p 54

were discarded

was discussed

was wielded

were trained

p 55

had been made

p 56

had been given

had been selected

was called

was given

had always been

Jonas’s name had been skipped!

Writing a summary using the blurb on the back cover.

Remember to use the Passive Voice.

A sample summary:

Jonas’s world is perfect. Everything is under control. The newly-born children are given numbers, then they are named. The numbers are rarely used after the Naming. Since the age of three children are strictly disciplined. They are taught to fit. Their behavior is standardized. Every impulse is curbed. At the age of twelve every child is assigned a role in the Community. Teenagers are trained to do different jobs.

When children begin to mature they are given special pills till they get old.

There are a lot of rules in the Community which are to be observed by every citizen. If someone breaks a rule three times, this citizen is released. Old people are also released and never seen gain. Some newchildren can be released, too, and sent Elsewhere.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 8

Jonas’s Assignement

A sample for a guided summary.

Jonas was not assigned, he was selected to be the next Receiver of Memory. The Community had had their Receiver for a very long time. They had failed in their last selection. It happened when Jonas was a toddler. They had to choose carefully. (The selection had to be sound.)The Receiver-in-training could not be observed or modified. He was to be alone, apart, while he was prepared for the job.

Jonas had shown all the qualities that a Receiver must have. Intelligence. Jonas had been a top student throughout his school days. Integrity. He had not committed any serious transgressions. Courage, as the training required of him involved physical pain. The fourth essential attribute was wisdom. The Elders were convinced Jonas had the ability to acquire wisdom. He also had the Capacity to See Beyond. Jonas had to agree that sometimes he saw something. It could mean seeing beyond.

Jonas did not know what his selection meant. He did not know what he was to become or what would become of him.

The community greeted Jonas chanting his name, and his heart swelled with gratitude and pride.

Exercise.

Integrity - the quality of being honest and having high moral principles: a man of integrity.

Guided summary.

Relate the events of chapter 8 choosing the correct words.

Jonas’s Assignement

Jonas was not assigned, he was selected/elected to be the next Giver/ Receiver of Memory. The Community/society had had their Receiver for a very long/short time. They had failed/succeeded in their last selection/election. It happened when Jonas was a toddler/teenager. They had to choose carefully/carelessly. The selection had to be spontaneous/sound. The Receiver-in-training could not be watched/observed or changed/modified. He was to be alone, apart, while he was prepared for the job.

Jonas had shown all the drawbacks/qualities that a Receiver must have. Cleverness/Intelligence. Jonas had been a top student throughout his school days. Obedience/Integrity. He had not committed any serious offences/transgressions. Boldness/Courage, as the training/instruction required of him involved mental/physical pain. The fourth essential attribute was wisdom/violence. The Elders were sure/convinced Jonas had the ability to acquire/get wisdom. He also had the Ability/Capacity to See Through/Beyond. Jonas had to agree that sometimes he saw something. It could be a seeing beyond.

Jonas did not know what his selection/ appointment meant. He did not know what he was to become or what would become of him.

The community greeted Jonas chanting/shouting his name, and his heart swelled with shame/ gratitude and humiliation/pride.

Jonas did not know what his selection/ appointment meant. He did not know

 

Homework:

Read Chapter 9, write what Jonas was to do and what he was forbidden to do, according to his new Rules and Instructions.

Homework.

Read Chapter 10, write a description of Jonas’s new Instructor (in about twenty sentences).

Homework. Read Chapter 11,12 and 13. Entitle each of them, write a gist and three questions to every chapter.

Chapter 9

Rules and Instructions

    1. Jonas was to go at the end of school hour each day to the Annex entrance behind...
    2. ... to go to his dwelling at the conclusion of Training Hours each day.
    3. He was exempted from rules governing rudeness. He was allowed to ask any question of any citizen and he would receive answers.
    4. He was not allowed to discuss his training
    5. He was prohibited from dream-telling.
    6. He was not allowed to apply for any medication, except for illness or injury unrelated to his training.
    7. He was not permitted to apply for release.
    8. He was permitted to lie.

Was excused from dream-telling

The restriction of medication unnerved him

steeled himself to read the final rule

had been trained since earliest childhood, since his earliest learning of language, never to lie

Homework. Read Chapter 11,12 and 13. Entitle each of them, write a gist and three questions to every chapter.

 

 

The Giver, Chapters 11, 12, 13.

Chapter 11, the first memories of pleasure, those of snow and of sunshine. The painful memory of sunburn.

Was there no snow in their land?

N.B. Breathe - breath

shiver

His impressions: “It was very startling; but he was not at all frightened. He was filled with energy, and he breathed again.”

“Felt cold air swirling around his entire body”

N. B. Complex Object: felt it blow

became aware of an entirely new sensation: pinpricks? The sensation made him smile.

Consciousness

One part of his consciousness knew that he was still lying there...Yet another, separate part of his being was in a sitting position...his hands held a rough, damp rope... sitting on a sled

like cold fur

his breath was visible

was going downhill

the experience explained itself to him

What did he enjoy? - the breathless glee that overwhelmed him: the speed, the clear cold air, the total silence, the feeling of balance and excitement and peace. ...feathery, magical cold...(ch. 12) It was fun!

For the old man, it was exhausting. And a little weight off the old body.

All he gave him was one ride, on one side, in one snow, on one hill. He had a whole world of them in his memory.

Had Jonas’s parents had snow, and sleds, and hills?

It was a very distant memory. The Giver had to tug it forward from many generations back.

What happened to the snow?

- Climate Control. Snow made growing food difficult, limited the agricultural periods. And unpredictable weather made transportation almost impossible at times. It wasn’t a practical thing, so it became obsolete when the community came to Sameness. No snow, no hills.

Jonas: I wish we had those things.

The Giver had great honor which wasn’t the same as power.

Jonas was given something else without the name. He was to perceive the name without being told. Did Jonas perceive the word? What was it? - The Sunshine.

What was the last memory Jonas received on that day?

What did the Giver look at the end of the day? - Weary.

Imagine you are Jonas. Make more sentences like “I wish we had those things. I wish we had... I wish we could...”

Chapter 12

Most important things that Jonas learned in this chapter: coming to Sameness. Colors lost. Jonas’s reaction.

Dream-telling. Jonas’s lie. Gabriel’s problems with sleep.

I wish Gabriel would sleep soundly...

I wish he had slept soundly...

Jonas’s dream of a something, a destination that lay beyond the place where the sled stopped. / had stopped.

Classes at school: language and communications, commerce and industry, science and technology, civil procedures and government

What subjects are missing?

during the breaks for recreation periods the other Twelves were abuzz with descriptions of their first day of training.

Jonas was aware of his own admonition - a synonym- ? not to discuss his training.

To admonish - to warn or notify of a fault; to reprove with mildness; to council against wrong practices; to caution, advise, or exhort; to instruct or direct; to remind; to recall or urge to duty.

Admonition - council or advice; a warning; gentle reproof; instruction in duties; caution; direction

It was easy for Jonas to be still and to listen. - Why?

What was there for Fiona to learn at the House of the Old? P 90 - administrative work, and the dietary rules, and punishment for disobedience, occupational therapy, recreational activities, and medications. A discipline wand on the Old, the same as for small children. - was Fiona telling Jonas everything she had learned? Why do you think she stopped?

“Seeing beoynd” again. It was Fiona’s hair.

The apple, then the faces, that day - Fiona’s hair.

What was the word that Jonas did not know?

What was the explanation? - Jonas was beginning to see the color red.

Before they went to Sameness...

There were a lot of colors. They had never completely mastered Sameness. The genetic scientists were still hard at work trying to work the kinks out.

When Jonas receives the memories, he’ll be able to see all the colors. He’ll gain wisdom, along with colors. P.95

They had relinquished color when they had relinquished sunshine and had done away with differences. They had gained control of many things. But they had had to let go of others. / they had gained a lot, but they had lost much more.

To relinquish - (formal) to give up your position, power, rights etc.: The party refused to relinquish power.

What was Jonas’s conclusion? - “We shouldn’t have done that.”

The Giver was going to give Jonas a memory of a rainbow. Remember the poem “Rainbow” by Wordsworth. What does a rainbow mean for Wordsworth? - Aesthetic pleasure.

Compare: Walter Pater (1839-94)

For all art comes to you, proposing frankly to give nothing but the highest quality to your moments as they pass, and simply for those moments' sake.

To burn always with this hard, gemlike flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life.

There were no artists in the community!

W.Wordsworth

1770-1850

The Rainbow

My heart leaps up when I behold

A rainbow in the sky:

So was it when my life began;

So is it now I am a man;

So be it when I shall grow old,

Or let me die!

The Child is father of the Man;

And I could wish my days to be

Bound each to each by natural piety.

Chapter 13.

It would be a very long time before Jonas had the colors to keep. P97

Jonas wanted to decide things! There were no choices. P97

“We don’t dare to let people make choices of their own.” Why? - Not safe.

No Freedom of choice. “People might choose their own jobs!” - Frightening. “We really have to protect people from wrong choices.” p 98

Jonas was left with a feeling of frustration that he didn’t understand. P99

To frustrate - if something frustrates you, it makes you feel annoyed or angry because you are unable to do what you want: It’s the lack of money that really frustrates me.

Frustrated - feeling annoyed or angry: Don’t get so frustrated; learning a language takes time.

Frustration - the feeling of being annoyed or angry because you are unable to do what you want to do: A toddler was kicking the ground in frustration.

Asher failed to see the color. P99

p 99 What memory did Jonas receive? A startling and disturbing memory. Elephant hunting. A sound of rage and grief.

P 101 Lily failed to accept the memory of the being of the elephant.

P 101 The Giver encouraged all of his questions, even the most personal.

Was a Giver allowed to apply for a spouse?

Wouldn’t be easy. Living arrangements would be different.

p. 103 When Jonas became the official Receiver, he would be given a new set of rules to obey. He would be forbidden to talk about his work. He wouldn’t be able to share a whole part of his life with the family.

The Giver was called upon to use the memories. But it very seldom happened. He wished they would ask for his wisdom more often. He wished they would change a lot of things.

They didn’t want change. What sort of life was there in the community? Life was orderly, predictable, painless. [peaceful, uneventful]

p. 104

Ten years before the new Receiver released the memory she had received. It was chaos. The people really suffered for a while.

Normally there was no suffering in the community.

p. 106

Jonas testing his developing memory. What did he manage to see? Seeing the green of the landscape, the blue of the sky. What did he wonder about? Wondering about Elsewhere.

Chapter 14. The memory of pain, hunger. New wisdom.

P 112 The Giver advised them against increasing the population.

Memories of warfare, memories of destruction.

Why can’t everyone have the memories? [ Why can’t everyone read history?]

They didn’t want to be burdened and pained. Nothing could be changed.

The newchild, Gabriel.

His success. He could sit alone, could reach for and grasp small play objects, and he had six teeth. Remained fretful at night.

The idea of releasing Gabriel.

Twin males were being expected. One was to be released.

It wasn’t hard, just a matter of birthweight.

Jonas wondering about Elsewhere. Larissa had been released.

Jonas pacified Gabriel giving him the memory of a sail on a lake. A calming day on the lake.

 

Chapter 15

The memory of warfare

Jonas learned what warefare meant.

What war do you think Jonas was made to witness? - The Civil War between South and North.

What sights shocked him most of all?

Chapter 16.

1. What did Jonas feel like after receiving the memory of war?

2. What pleasant experiences did Jonas get afterwards?

3. What was the Giver’s favourite memory?

4. What astonished Jonas in the scene of celebration? Why?

5. Where were Jonas’s grandparents?

6. What was the word and concept that sounded new to Jonas?

7. What did his parents think of the word? What was his mother’s explanation?

8. Why did he transmit some happy memories to Gabriel?

9. Why do you think he did not take his pill the next morning?

 

1. Wanted his childhood again

2. at the Giver’s - the feeling of love

- it was a word and concept new to him

3. At home; the parents about love: “a very generalised word, so meaningless that it has become almost obsolete”.

- the community cannot function smoothly if people do not use precise language

4. Gabriel

5. no pill in the morning

Chapter 17

1. What was the new depth of feelings that Jonas was experiencing?

2. What was the difference between the emotions he had felt and those his relatives and friends felt?

3. What were the duties that his father was to perform the next day?

4. What did Jonas want to know about the Ceremony? What was his father’s answer?

 

Chapter 17- unscheduled holiday. A depressing day after a bright start.

couldn’t go back to the world of no feelings that he had lived in so long

his new, heightened feelings, he was experiencing a new depth of feelings - all the colors, real anger, even rage, sadness, grief, happiness

not anger, but impatience and exasperation

a game of good guys and bad guys, a game of war

love for Asher and Fiona

Gabriel’s first steps - the occasion for celebration, also for the introduction of a discipline wand

Father’s plans for the next day - a small Ceremony of Release. “Someone from Elsewhere comes to get him.”

Chapter 18. Rosemary.

A character-sketch.

A remarkable young woman. Very self-possessed and serene. Intelligent, eager to learn.

She received well, was so enthusiastic, delighted to experience new things.

Received loneliness, loss, a memory of a child taken from its parents. Did not inflict physical pain on her, but gave her anguish of many kinds. Poverty, and hunger, and terror.

Went directly to the Chief Elder and asked to be released.

What would the community do if they lost Jonas?

It would be a disaster. The memories would come back to the people. The feelings would overwhelm the community. They’d have all those memories again themselves. They’d hate it.

Chapter 19

The truth about Release.

How did Jonas learn the truth? What was his reaction?

Did you expect anything like that as a reader?

CHAPTER 20

1. Why did not Jonas want to go home that day?

2. What other harsh truths did Jonas learn then?

3. What made Jonas and the Giver different form other people of the community?

4. What plan did Jonas make? Was the Giver going to take part in it?

5. What might happen to the community in case Jonas escaped?

6. Which memory did Jonas want the Giver to keep?

7. What were the details of the plan?

8. What was the last thing that Jonas learned about the Giver’ private life?

CHAPTER 21

Reading Comprehension Questions.

I. 1.What news changed Jonas’s plan?

2. What rules did Jonas break that night?

3. How did the first part of the way go?

4. Was anybody after the fugitives? How did Jonas manage to hide?

5. How did Jonas know that the search had stopped?

6. Which memory did Jonas want the Giver to keep?

7. What were the details of the plan?

8. What was the last thing that Jonas learned about the Giver’ private life?

CHAPTER 21

Reading Comprehension Questions.

II. 1.What news changed Jonas’s plan?

2. What rules did Jonas break that night?

3. How did the first part of the way go?

4. Was anybody after the fugitives? How did Jonas manage to hide?

5. How did Jonas know that the search had stopped?

 

Чтение романа можно завершить обсуждением представлений об идеальном обществе или сравнением различных типов государств, представленных в антиутопиях. Для расширения словарных понятий предлагаются следующие статьи на английском языке:

 

Controversial issues

What is a controversial issue?

Controversial issues are rarely black and white - but many shades of grey. There are nearly always more than two sides to an argument; in fact, the best issues to choose for debate are those where there are many different angles and no easy solutions.

Controversial issues occur at all scales - local, national, transnational and even global.

Controversial issues are environmental, economic, social and political, or often a combination of all four.

The great questions of our day cannot be solved by speeches and majority votes... but by iron and blood.

Otto von Bismarck, 1862.

Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

Lord Acton, 1887

Democracy means government by discussion but it is only effective if you can stop people talking.

Clement Attlee, 1957.

Democracy means government by the uneducated while aristocracy means government by the badly educated.

New York Times, 1931

Global warming is not proven, therefore we should do nothing.

- A title of an article in a newspaper

Poverty is the cause of crime.

- An opinion.

 

Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry, Jerry Goldman

The Challenge of Democracy

Government in America

IDEOLOGY AND THE SCOPE OF GOVERNMENT

People hold different opinions about the merits of government policies. Sometimes their views are based on self-interest. For example, senior citizens approve of the social security system more than citizens who do not reap the benefits of the system. Policies also are judged according to individual values and beliefs. Some people hold an assortment of values and beliefs that produce contradictory opinions on government policies. Organize their opinions into a political ideology - a consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government.

Political writers often describe the ideologies of politicians and voters as “liberal” or “conservative.” In popular usage, liberals favor an active, broad role for government in society; conservatives, a passive, narrow role. For example, liberals favored the Social Security Act of 1935 because they wanted the government to help the elderly. Conservatives opposed the act because it committed the federal government to a costly new program. Although relatively few citizens today would advocate scrapping social security, they often divide sharply on ideological grounds over the desirability of other government programs. By carefully analyzing their political ideologies, we can explain their support of and opposition to seemingly diverse government policies.

How far should government go to maintain order, provide public goods, and promise equality? In the United States (as in every other nation), citizens, scholars, and politicians have different answers to this question. We can analyze their positions using normative theories about the proper scope of government - the range of its permissible activities. Imagine a continuum. At one end is the belief that government should do everything; at the other, the belief that government should not exist.

Totalitarianism is a belief that government should have unlimited power. A totalitarian government controls all sectors of society: business, labor, education, religion, sports, the arts. A true totalitarian favors a network of laws, rules, and regulations that guides every aspect of individual behavior. The object is to produce a perfect society serving some master plan for “the common good”. Totalitarianism had reached its terrifying potential only in literature and films (for example, George Orwell’s 1984), but several real societies have perilously close to “perfection”. One thinks of Hitler’s Germany, Stalin’s Soviet Union, and perhaps the Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iran. Not many people openly profess totalitarianism today, but the concept is useful because it anchors one side of our continuum.

Socialism

Where totalitarianism refers to government in general, socialism pertains to government’s role in the economy. Like communism, socialism is an economic system based on Marxist theory. Under socialism ( and communism), the scope of government extends to ownership or control of the basic industries that produce goods and services. These include communications, mining, heavy industry, transportation, and power. Although socialism favors a strong role of government in regulating private industry and directing the economy, it allows more room than communism does for private ownership of productive capacity.

Many Americans equate socialism with the communism practiced in the closed societies of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. But there is a difference. Although communism in theory was supposed to result in a “withering away” of the state, communist government s in practice tend toward totalitarianism, controlling both political and social life through a dominant party organization. Some socialist governments, however, practice democratic socialism. They guarantee civil liberties (such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion) and allow their citizens to determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties. Outside the United States, socialism is not an inherently bad thing. In fact, the governments of Britain, Sweden, Germany and France - among other democracies - have at times since World War II been avowedly “socialist.” In the United States, however, socialism has a bad connotation.

Capitalism

Capitalism also relates to the government‘s role in the economy. In contrast to both socialism and communism, capitalism supports free enterprise - private businesses operating without government regulations. Some theorists argue that free enterprise is necessary for free politics. The argument, that the economic system of capitalism is essential to democracy, contradicts the tenets of democratic socialism.

The United States is decidedly a capitalist country, far more so than Britain or most other Western nations. Despite the U. S. government’s enormous budget, it owns or operates relatively few public enterprises. For example, railroads, airlines, and television stations are privately owned in the United States; these businesses are commonly owned by government in other countries. But the U.S. government does extends its authority into the economic sphere, regulating private businesses and directing the overall economy. American liberals and conservatives both embrace capitalism, but they differ on the nature and amount of government intervention in the economy.

Libertarianism

Libertarianism opposes all government action except that which is necessary to protect life and property. Libertarians grudgingly recognize the necessity of government but believe that government should be as limited as possible. For example, libertarians grant the need for traffic laws to ensure safe and efficient automobile travel. But they oppose laws that set a minimum drinking age as a restriction on individual actions. Libertarians believe that social programs that provide food, clothing, and shelter are outside the proper scope of government. Helping the needy, they insist, should be a matter of individual choice. Libertarians also oppose government ownership of basic industries; in fact, they oppose any government intervention in the economy. This kind of economic policy is called laissez faire - a French phrase that means “let (people) do (as they please).”

Libertarians are very vocal advocates of “hands-off” government - in both social and economic spheres.

Don’t confuse libertarians and liberals. The words are similar, but their meanings are very different. Libertarianism draws on liberty as its root and means “absence of governmental constraint.” In American political usage, liberalism evolved from the root word liberal. Over time, it has come to mean something closer to “generous”, in the sense that liberals are willing to support government spending on social programs.

Anarchism stands opposite totalitarianism on the political continuum. Anarchists oppose all government, in any form. As a political philosophy, anarchism values freedom above all else. Because all government involves some restriction on personal freedom (for example, forcing people to drive on one side of the road), a pure anarchist would even object to traffic laws. Like totalitarianism, anarchism is not a popular philosophy, but it does have adherents on the political fringe.

 

Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell

English Vocabulary in Use

Cambridge University Press

POLITICS AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

A. Types of government

republic: a state governed by representatives and, usually, a president

monarchy: a state ruled by a king or queen

democracy: government of, by and for the people

dictatorship: system of government run by a dictator

independence: freedom from outside control; self-governing

B. People and bodies involved in politics

Member of Parliament (MP): a representative of the people in Parliament

politician: someone for whom politics is a career

statesman/ woman: someone who uses an important political position wisely and well

Prime Minister: the head of government or leading minister in many countries

chamber: hall used by a group of legislators; many countries have two chambers

cabinet: a committee of the most important ministers in the government

President and Vice-President: the head of state in many modern countries

Mayor: head of a town or city council

ambassador: top diplomat representing his/her country abroad

embassy: the building where an ambassador and his/her staff are based

ministry: a department of state headed by a minister

C. Elections

constituency: a political area whose inhabitants are represented by one MP

candidate: someone who stands in an election

policy: the programme of action of a particular party or government

majority: the number of votes by which a person wins an election

referendum: a direct vote by the population on some important public issue

by (e) - election: an election in one constituency in contrast to a General Election

marginal seat: a parliamentary seat held by a very small majority of votes

the opposition: members of parliament who do not belong to the party in power

stand/run for Parliament: to be a candidate in an election

vote: to choose in a formal way, e.g. by marking a ballot paper

elect: to choose someone or something by voting